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عنوان کتاب  :

Centrifugal Pumps

Johann Friedrich Gülich
Second edition

 

Preface
Life is linked to liquid transport, and so are vital segments of economy. Pumping devices – be it the human heart, a boiler feeder or the cooling-water pump of a motorcar – are always part of a more or less complex system where pump failure can lead to severe consequences. To select, operate or even design a pump, some understanding of the system is helpful, if not essential. Depending on the application, a centrifugal pump can be a simple device which could be built in a garage with a minimum of know-how – or a high-tech machine requiring advanced skills, sophisticated engineering and extensive testing. When attempting to describe the state-of-the-art in hydraulic engineering of centrifugal pumps, the focus is necessarily on the high-tech side rather than on less-demanding services even though these make up the majority of pump applications. Centrifugal pump technology involves a broad spectrum of flow phenomena which have a profound impact on design and operation through the achieved efficiency, the stability of the head-capacity characteristic, vibration, noise, component failure due to fatigue, as well as material damage caused by cavitation, hydro- abrasive wear or erosion corrosion. Operation and life cycle costs of pumping equipment depend to a large extent on how well these phenomena and the interaction of the pump with the system are understood. This book endeavors to describe pump hydraulic phenomena in their broadest sense in a format highly relevant for the pump engineer involved in pump design and selection, operation and troubleshooting. Emphasis is on physical mechanisms, practical application and engineering correlations for real flow phenomena, rather than on mathematical treatment and theories of inviscid flow. The present 2nd English edition has been supplemented with some recent research results on hydraulic excitation phenomena. Additional information has been provided on: sewage pump design data, hydraulic unbalance of singlechannel impellers, torsional vibrations and turbine calculations. Printing errors were corrected and some additions were done in most of the chapters. The first (1999) and second (2004) editions of this book were written in German. The third edition in German is due to appear in the 1st semester of the year 2010.

Villeneuve (Switzerland), January 2010
J.F. Gülich

 

 

Table of contents
1 Fluid dynamic principles ...................................................................................1
1.1 Flow in the absolute and relative reference frame .......................................1
1.2 Conservation equations................................................................................2
1.2.1 Conservation of mass ...........................................................................2
1.2.2 Conservation of energy ........................................................................3
1.2.3 Conservation of momentum .................................................................4
1.3 Boundary layers, boundary layer control.....................................................7
1.4 Flow on curved streamlines .......................................................................11
1.4.1 Equilibrium of forces .........................................................................11
1.4.2 Forced and free vortices .....................................................................14
1.4.3 Flow in curved channels.....................................................................16
1.5 Pressure losses ...........................................................................................18
1.5.1 Friction losses (skin friction)..............................................................18
1.5.2 Influence of roughness on friction losses...........................................21
1.5.3 Losses due to vortex dissipation (form drag) .....................................25
1.6 Diffusers ....................................................................................................27
1.7 Submerged jets ..........................................................................................31
1.8 Equalization of non-uniform velocity profiles...........................................33
1.9 Flow distribution in parallel channels, piping networks............................34
2 Pump types and performance data.................................................................39
2.1 Basic principles and components...............................................................39
2.2 Performance data .......................................................................................43
2.2.1 Specific work, head............................................................................43
2.2.2 Net positive suction head, NPSH .......................................................45
2.2.3 Power and efficiency..........................................................................46
2.2.4 Pump characteristics...........................................................................46
2.3 Pump types and their applications .............................................................47
2.3.1 Overview............................................................................................47
2.3.2 Classification of pumps and applications...........................................49
2.3.3 Pump types .........................................................................................52
2.3.4 Special pump types.............................................................................64
3 Pump hydraulics and physical concepts.........................................................69
3.1 One-dimensional calculation with velocity triangles.................................69
3.2 Energy transfer in the impeller, specific work and head ...........................72
3.3 Flow deflection caused by the blades. Slip factor......................................75

3.4 Dimensionless coefficients, similarity laws and specific speed ................ 80
3.5 Power balance and efficiencies.................................................................. 83
3.6 Calculation of secondary losses................................................................. 85
3.6.1 Disk friction losses............................................................................. 85
3.6.2 Leakage losses through annular seals ................................................ 89
3.6.3 Power loss caused by the inter-stage seal........................................... 98
3.6.4 Leakage loss of radial or diagonal seals............................................. 98
3.6.5 Leakage losses in open impellers....................................................... 99
3.6.6 Mechanical losses ............................................................................ 101
3.7 Basic hydraulic calculations of collectors ............................................... 102
3.8 Hydraulic losses....................................................................................... 107
3.9 Statistical data of pressure coefficients, efficiencies and losses .............. 112
3.10 Influence of roughness and Reynolds number ...................................... 120
3.10.1 Overview........................................................................................ 120
3.10.2 Efficiency scaling........................................................................... 121
3.10.3 Calculation of the efficiency from loss analysis ............................ 123
3.11 Minimization of losses........................................................................... 129
3.12 Compendium of equations for hydraulic calculations ........................... 130
4 Performance characteristics.......................................................................... 145
4.1 Head-capacity characteristic and power consumption............................. 145
4.1.1 Theoretical head curve (without losses)........................................... 145
4.1.2 Real characteristics with losses ........................................................ 148
4.1.3 Component characteristics ............................................................... 151
4.1.4 Head and power at operation against closed discharge valve .......... 157
4.1.5 Influence of pump size and speed .................................................... 160
4.1.6 Influence of specific speed on the shape of the characteristics........ 160
4.2 Best efficiency point................................................................................ 161
4.3 Prediction of pump characteristics........................................................... 165
4.4 Range charts ............................................................................................ 167
4.5 Modification of the pump characteristics ................................................ 169
4.5.1 Impeller trimming ............................................................................ 169
4.5.2 Under-filing and over-filing of the blades at the trailing edge......... 176
4.5.3 Collector modifications.................................................................... 178
4.6 Analysis of performance deviations ........................................................ 178
4.7 Calculation of modifications of the pump characteristics........................ 182
5 Partload operation, impact of 3-D flow phenomena performance ............ 187
5.1 Basic considerations ................................................................................ 187
5.2 The flow through the impeller ................................................................. 190
5.2.1 Overview.......................................................................................... 190
5.2.2 Physical mechanisms ....................................................................... 192
5.2.3 The combined effect of different mechanisms ................................. 198
5.2.4 Recirculation at the impeller inlet .................................................... 200
5.2.5 Flow at the impeller outlet ............................................................... 206

5.2.6 Experimental detection of the onset of recirculation........................207
5.3 The flow in the collector..........................................................................209
5.3.1 Flow separation in the diffuser.........................................................209
5.3.2 Pressure recovery in the diffuser......................................................212
5.3.3 Influence of approach flow on pressure recovery and stall..............213
5.3.4 Flow in the volute casing .................................................................215
5.3.5 Flow in annular casings and vaneless diffusers................................215
5.4 The effects of flow recirculation..............................................................216
5.4.1 Effects of flow recirculation at the impeller inlet.............................216
5.4.2 Effect of flow recirculation at the impeller outlet ............................220
5.4.3 Effect of outlet recirculation on the flow in the impeller sidewall gaps
and on axial thrust .....................................................................................227
5.4.4 Damaging effects of partload recirculation ......................................229
5.5 Influence of flow separation and recirculation on the Q-H-curve ...........230
5.5.1 Types of Q-H-curve instability ........................................................230
5.5.2 Saddle-type instabilities ...................................................................231
5.5.3 Type F instabilities ...........................................................................240
5.6 Means to influence the shape of the Q-H-curve ......................................240
5.6.1 Introduction ......................................................................................240
5.6.2 Influencing the onset of recirculation at the impeller inlet...............241
5.6.3 Influencing the onset of recirculation at the impeller outlet.............242
5.6.4 Eliminating a type F instability ........................................................242
5.6.5 Influencing the saddle-type instability of impellers with nq < 50.....243
5.6.6 Influencing the saddle-type instability of impellers with nq > 50.....248
5.6.7 Influencing the instability of semi-axial and axial impellers............248
5.6.8 Reduction of head and power at shut-off .........................................250
5.7 Flow phenomena in open axial impellers ................................................250
6 Suction capability and cavitation..................................................................259
6.1 Cavitation physics....................................................................................259
6.1.1 Growth and implosion of vapor bubbles in a flowing liquid ...........259
6.1.2 Bubble dynamics ..............................................................................261
6.2 Cavitation in impeller or diffuser.............................................................264
6.2.1 Pressure distribution and cavity length ............................................264
6.2.2 Required NPSH, extent of cavitation, cavitation criteria .................266
6.2.3 Scaling laws for cavitating flows .....................................................267
6.2.4 The suction specific speed................................................................271
6.2.5 Experimental determination of the required NPSHR........................273
6.2.6 Cavitation in annular seals ...............................................................283
6.3 Determination of the required NPSH.......................................................283
6.3.1 Parameters influencing NPSHR ........................................................283
6.3.2 Calculation of the NPSHR ................................................................286
6.3.3 Estimation of the NPSH3 as function of the flow rate......................290
6.4 Influence of the fluid properties ..............................................................293
6.4.1 Thermodynamic effects....................................................................294

6.4.2 Non-condensable gases .................................................................... 296
6.4.3 Nuclei content and tensile stresses in the liquid............................... 297
6.5 Cavitation-induced noise and vibrations ................................................. 300
6.5.1 Excitation mechanisms..................................................................... 300
6.5.2 Cavitation noise measurements ....................................................... 301
6.5.3 Frequency characteristics of cavitation noise................................... 304
6.6 Cavitation erosion.................................................................................... 305
6.6.1 Testing methods ............................................................................... 306
6.6.2 Cavitation resistance ........................................................................ 308
6.6.3 Prediction of cavitation damage based on cavity length .................. 311
6.6.4 Prediction of cavitation damage based on cavitation noise.............. 314
6.6.5 Solid-borne noise measurements for cavitation diagnosis ............... 316
6.6.6 Paint erosion tests to determine the location of bubble implosion... 316
6.6.7 Onset of erosion and behavior of material subject to different
hydrodynamic cavitation intensities.......................................................... 318
6.6.8 Summarizing assessment.................................................................. 321
6.7 Selection of the inlet pressure in a plant.................................................. 325
6.8 Cavitation damage: analysis and remedies .............................................. 328
6.8.1 Record damage and operation parameters ....................................... 328
6.8.2 Forms of cavitation and typical cavitation damage patterns ............ 329
6.8.3 Reduction or elimination of cavitation damage ............................... 334
6.9 Insufficient suction capacity: Analysis and remedies.............................. 335
7 Design of the hydraulic components............................................................. 337
7.1 Methods and boundary conditions........................................................... 337
7.1.1 Methods for the development of hydraulic components .................. 337
7.1.2 The hydraulic specification .............................................................. 338
7.1.3 Calculation models........................................................................... 339
7.2 Radial impellers....................................................................................... 341
7.2.1 Determination of main dimensions .................................................. 341
7.2.2 Impeller design................................................................................. 350
7.2.3 Criteria for shaping the blades ......................................................... 355
7.2.4 Criteria for suction impeller design.................................................. 358
7.2.5 Exploiting three-dimensional effects in design................................ 360
7.3 Radial impellers for small specific speeds............................................... 361
7.3.1 Two-dimensional blades .................................................................. 361
7.3.2 Pumping disks with channels of circular section ............................. 363
7.3.3 Impellers with straight radial blades ................................................ 365
7.3.4 Double-acting impeller with straight radial blades .......................... 366
7.4 Radial impellers for non-clogging pumps ............................................... 368
7.5 Semi-axial impellers ................................................................................ 374
7.6 Axial impellers and diffusers................................................................... 378
7.6.1 Features ............................................................................................ 378
7.6.2 Calculation and selection of main dimensions ................................. 380
7.6.3 Basic properties of airfoils ............................................................... 385

7.6.4 Blade design .....................................................................................389
7.6.5 Profile selection................................................................................393
7.6.6 Design of axial diffusers ..................................................................400
7.7 Inducers ...................................................................................................401
7.7.1 Calculation of inducer parameters....................................................402
7.7.2 Design and shaping of an inducer ....................................................407
7.7.3 Matching the inducer to the impeller ...............................................409
7.7.4 Recommendations for inducer application.......................................410
7.8 Volute casings..........................................................................................412
7.8.1 Calculation and selection of main dimensions .................................412
7.8.2 Design and shaping of volute casings ..............................................416
7.8.3 Influence of the volute shape on hydraulic performance .................420
7.9 Radial diffusers with or without return channels.....................................422
7.9.1 Calculation and selection of main dimensions .................................422
7.9.2 Design and shaping of radial diffusers.............................................428
7.10 Semi-axial diffusers ...............................................................................431
7.11 Volutes combined with a diffuser or stay vanes ....................................432
7.12 Annular casings and vaneless diffusers .................................................433
7.13 Inlet casings for between-bearing pumps ..............................................434
8 Numerical flow calculations ..........................................................................439
8.1 Overview .................................................................................................439
8.2 Quasi-3D-procedures and 3D-Euler-calculations....................................441
8.2.1 Quasi-3D- procedures ......................................................................441
8.2.2 Three-dimensional Euler-procedures ...............................................442
8.3 Basics of Navier-Stokes calculations.......................................................443
8.3.1 The Navier-Stokes equations ...........................................................443
8.3.2 Turbulence models ...........................................................................444
8.3.3 Treatment of near-wall flows ...........................................................449
8.3.4 Grid generation.................................................................................451
8.3.5 Numerical procedures and control parameters .................................454
8.3.6 Boundary conditions ........................................................................456
8.3.7 Initial conditions...............................................................................458
8.3.8 Possibilities of 3D-Navier-Stokes-calculations................................459
8.4 Averaging and post-processing................................................................462
8.5 Impeller calculations................................................................................469
8.5.1 Global performance at best efficiency flow rate ..............................469
8.5.2 Velocity profiles...............................................................................472
8.5.3 Influencing parameters.....................................................................473
8.5.4 Sample calculation ...........................................................................473
8.6 Calculation of collectors and stages.........................................................476
8.6.1 Separate calculation of the collector ................................................476
8.6.2 Steady calculations of stages or complete pumps ............................477
8.6.3 Unsteady calculations.......................................................................479
8.7 Two-phase and cavitating flows ..............................................................480

8.8 Calculation strategy, uncertainties, quality issues ................................... 482
8.8.1 Uncertainties, sources and reduction of errors................................. 483
8.8.2 CFD quality assurance ..................................................................... 485
8.8.3 Comparison between calculation and experiment............................ 496
8.9 Criteria for assessment of numerical calculations ................................... 498
8.9.1 General remarks ............................................................................... 498
8.9.2 Consistence and plausibility of the calculation ................................ 499
8.9.3 Will the specified performance be reached? .................................... 499
8.9.4 Maximization of the hydraulic efficiency ........................................ 500
8.9.5 Stability of the head-capacity curve ................................................. 502
8.9.6 Unsteady forces................................................................................ 503
8.10 Fundamental considerations on CFD-calculations ................................ 503
9 Hydraulic forces ............................................................................................. 507
9.1 Flow phenomena in the impeller sidewall gaps....................................... 507
9.2 Axial forces ............................................................................................. 520
9.2.1 General procedure for calculating axial forces ................................ 520
9.2.2 Single-stage pumps with single-entry overhung impellers .............. 523
9.2.3 Multistage pumps............................................................................. 527
9.2.4 Double-entry impellers..................................................................... 531
9.2.5 Semi-axial impellers......................................................................... 532
9.2.6 Axial pumps ..................................................................................... 532
9.2.7 Expeller vanes .................................................................................. 533
9.2.8 Semi-open and open impellers ......................................................... 535
9.2.9 Unsteady axial thrust........................................................................ 536
9.3 Radial forces............................................................................................ 536
9.3.1 Definition and scope ........................................................................ 536
9.3.2 Measurement of radial forces........................................................... 538
9.3.3 Pumps with single volutes................................................................ 539
9.3.4 Pumps with double volutes .............................................................. 544
9.3.5 Pumps with annular casings ............................................................. 544
9.3.6 Diffuser pumps................................................................................. 545
9.3.7 Radial forces created by non-uniform approach flows .................... 546
9.3.8 Axial pumps ..................................................................................... 547
9.3.9 Radial forces in pumps with single-channel impellers..................... 548
9.3.10 Radial thrust balancing................................................................... 549
9.3.11 Radial thrust prediction .................................................................. 550
10 Noise and Vibrations.................................................................................... 555
10.1 Unsteady flow at the impeller outlet...................................................... 555
10.2 Pressure pulsations ................................................................................ 558
10.2.1 Generation of pressure pulsations .................................................. 558
10.2.2 Noise generation in a fluid ............................................................. 559
10.2.3 Influence parameters of the pump.................................................. 560
10.2.4 Influence of the system .................................................................. 561

10.2.5 Scaling laws ...................................................................................562
10.2.6 Measurement and evaluation of pressure pulsations ......................563
10.2.7 Pressure pulsations of pumps in operation .....................................565
10.2.8 Damaging effects of pressure pulsations........................................568
10.2.9 Design guidelines ...........................................................................568
10.3 Component loading by transient flow conditions ..................................569
10.4 Radiation of noise..................................................................................571
10.4.1 Solid-borne noise ...........................................................................571
10.4.2 Air-borne noise...............................................................................572
10.5 Overview of mechanical vibrations of centrifugal pumps.....................575
10.6 Rotor dynamics......................................................................................577
10.6.1 Overview........................................................................................577
10.6.2 Forces in annular seals ...................................................................578
10.6.3 Hydraulic impeller interaction........................................................585
10.6.4 Bearing reaction forces...................................................................586
10.6.5 Eigen values and critical speeds.....................................................587
10.6.6 Rotor instabilities ...........................................................................590
10.7 Hydraulic excitation of vibrations .........................................................593
10.7.1 Interactions between impeller and diffuser blades (RSI) ...............593
10.7.2 Rotating stall ..................................................................................600
10.7.3 Other hydraulic excitation mechanisms .........................................602
10.8 Guidelines for the design of pumps with low sensitivity to vibrations..606
10.9 Allowable vibrations..............................................................................609
10.10 General vibration diagnostics ..............................................................613
10.10.1 Overview......................................................................................613
10.10.2 Vibration measurements...............................................................614
10.10.3 Vibration diagnostics ...................................................................616
10.11 Bearing housing vibrations: mechanism, diagnostics, remedies..........622
10.11.1 Hydraulic excitation mechanisms.................................................623
10.11.2 Mechanical reaction to hydraulic excitation.................................627
10.11.3 Hydraulic versus mechanical remedies ........................................630
10.11.4 Bearing housing vibration diagnostics .........................................631
10.12 Hydraulic and acoustic excitation of pipe vibrations...........................643
10.12.1 Excitation of pipe vibrations by pumps........................................643
10.12.2 Excitation of pipe vibrations by components ...............................645
10.12.3 Acoustic resonances in pipelines..................................................646
10.12.4 Hydraulic excitation by vortex streets..........................................650
10.12.5 Coupling of flow phenomena with acoustics ...............................653
10.12.6 Pipe vibration mechanisms...........................................................657
10.13 Torsional vibrations.............................................................................660
11 Operation of centrifugal pumps..................................................................665
11.1 System characteristics, operation in parallel or in series .......................665
11.2 Pump control..........................................................................................670
11.3 Static and dynamic stability...................................................................677

11.4 Start-up and shut-down.......................................................................... 679
11.5 Power failure, water hammer................................................................. 683
11.6 Allowable operation range..................................................................... 684
11.7 The approach flow to the pump............................................................. 687
11.7.1 Suction piping layout ..................................................................... 688
11.7.2 Transient suction pressure decay ................................................... 690
11.7.3 Pump intakes and suction from tanks with free liquid level .......... 696
11.7.4 Can pumps...................................................................................... 711
11.8 Discharge piping.................................................................................... 711
12 Turbine operation, general characteristics ................................................ 715
12.1 Reverse running centrifugal pumps used as turbines ............................ 715
12.1.1 Theoretical and actual characteristics ............................................ 715
12.1.2 Runaway and resistance characteristics ......................................... 721
12.1.3 Estimation of turbine characteristics from statistical correlations.. 722
12.1.4 Estimation of turbine characteristics from loss models.................. 727
12.1.5 Behavior of turbines in plants ........................................................ 731
12.2 General characteristics........................................................................... 734
13 Influence of the medium on performance .................................................. 741
13.1 Pumping highly viscous fluids .............................................................. 741
13.1.1 Effect of viscosity on losses and performance characteristics ....... 741
13.1.2 Estimation of viscous performance from the characteristics measured
with water.................................................................................................. 748
13.1.3 Influence of viscosity on the suction capacity ............................... 754
13.1.4 Start-up of pumps in viscous service ............................................. 755
13.1.5 Viscous pumping applications - recommendations and comments 756
13.2 Pumping of gas-liquid mixtures ............................................................ 757
13.2.1 Two-phase flow patterns in straight pipe flow............................... 758
13.2.2 Two-phase flow in pumps. Physical mechanisms.......................... 761
13.2.3 Calculation of two-phase pump performance ................................ 770
13.2.4 Radial pumps operating with two-phase flow................................ 777
13.2.5 Helico-axial multiphase pumps...................................................... 782
13.2.6 System curves ................................................................................ 786
13.2.7 Slugs and gas pockets .................................................................... 788
13.2.8 Free gas, dissolved gas and NPSH................................................. 790
13.3 Expansion of two-phase mixtures in turbines........................................ 791
13.3.1 Calculation of the work transfer..................................................... 791
13.3.2 Prediction of turbine characteristics for two-phase flow ............... 793
13.4 Hydraulic transport of solids ................................................................. 796
13.5 Non-Newtonian liquids ......................................................................... 804
14 Selection of materials exposed to high flow velocities ............................... 809
14.1 Impeller or diffuser fatigue fractures..................................................... 810
14.2 Corrosion ............................................................................................... 822

14.2.1 Corrosion fundamentals .................................................................822
14.2.2 Corrosion mechanisms ...................................................................823
14.2.3 Corrosion in fresh water, cooling water, sewage ...........................827
14.2.4 Corrosion in sea water and produced water ...................................830
14.3 Erosion corrosion in demineralized water .............................................835
14.4 Material selection and allowable flow velocities...................................844
14.4.1 Definition of frequently encountered fluids ...................................844
14.4.2 Metallic pump materials.................................................................846
14.4.3 Impellers, diffusers and casings .....................................................852
14.4.4 Wear ring materials ........................................................................863
14.4.5 Shaft materials................................................................................866
14.4.6 Materials for feedwater and condensate pumps .............................867
14.4.7 Materials for FGD-pumps ..............................................................868
14.4.8 Composite materials .......................................................................869
14.5 Hydro-abrasive wear..............................................................................870
14.5.1 Influence parameters ......................................................................870
14.5.2 Quantitative estimation of hydro-abrasive wear.............................873
14.5.3 Material behavior and influence of solids properties .....................880
14.5.4 Material selection ...........................................................................883
14.5.5 Abrasive wear in slurry pumps.......................................................884
15 Pump selection and quality considerations ................................................887
15.1 The pump specification..........................................................................888
15.2 Determination of pump type and size ....................................................890
15.3 Technical quality criteria .......................................................................896
15.3.1 Hydraulic criteria............................................................................896
15.3.2 Manufacturing quality ....................................................................899
15.4 High-energy pumps ...............................................................................905
Appendices .........................................................................................................911
A1 Units and unit conversion ........................................................................911
A2 Properties of saturated water....................................................................913
A3 Solution of gases in water........................................................................916
A4 Physical constants ....................................................................................919
A4.1 Atmospheric pressure .......................................................................919
A4.2 Acceleration due to gravity ..............................................................919
A5 Sound velocity in liquids .........................................................................920
A6 Mechanical vibrations - basic notions......................................................921
Index ...................................................................................................................957
Literature ...........................................................................................................931
Symbols, abbreviations, definitions ..............................................................XXII

 

 

 

جهت دانلود کتاب فوق بر روی لینک زیر کلیک کنید :

 

:: دانلود رایگان هندبوک پمپهای سانتریفیوژ گولیچ Gulich

 

 

 

همچنین ببینید :

 

 

معرفی دستگاه تراش و اجزای مهم در ساختمان ماشین تراش معرفی دستگاه تراش و اجزای مهم در ساختمان ماشین تراش
در این مقاله به بررسی تاریخچه ماشین تراش , انواع دستگاه تراش و اجزای مهم در ساختمان ماشین تراش می پردازیم. ...
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شات بلاست چیست؟ شات بلاست چیست؟
در این تکنیک ساچمه های فولادی ( کروی و شکسته ) یا شات ...
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وایرکات فرآیند براده‌برداری است که در آن از یک منبع با انرژی ...
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